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Quasi culturally relevant psychological phenom independent variables are those such as sex ena using theories medications with codeine generic oxcarbazepine 600 mg free shipping, concepts medications safe during pregnancy cheap oxcarbazepine 150mg mastercard, and methods or age that are treated as independent but are that refect local cultural contexts and per not under the control of the experimenter treatment xanthelasma oxcarbazepine 300mg line. Indigenous psychology can also refer to the knowledge base or content that indigenous emotions results from this approach. Categories of emotion that are specifc chologies are rooted in the specifc ecologi to a particular culture and have no exact cul cal, historical, sociocultural, and language tural or language equivalents. As an example, contexts of a given culture and refect the amae in Japanese is the emotion of related experiences, perspectives, and premises of its ness between two people, Schadenfreude in members. Thus, in indigenous tion, culturally shared scripts of reactions to psychology, the culture of interest is the source situations. These systems often include indirect speech act holistic, social, and spiritual dimensions n. Any speech act whose meaning does not which have been lacking in Euro-American appear explicitly in the verbal content of an tradition and have often been found bene utterance. Measurable variance on any dimension indigenous personalities among persons or organisms in a group. Enduring and pervading patterns of indi vidual adjustment showing meaningful dif individualism ferences among individuals within a culture. A cultural pattern found in cultures that Conceptions of personality are more or tend to be complex, modern, and tolerant of less generalizable to other cultures so that deviations from cultural norms. It is found 253 individual-level analysis industrial/organizational psychology by examining data across cultures and is the psychology. It is also temporary perspectives in social and person very likely to be present among the more ality psychology. In Jungian theory, the process of self ations where there is fast social change, and realization that accelerates in middle age in in an open frontier. Any pro See also collectivism cess of becoming an autonomous, individual personality. Any statistical or other procedure which induced psychotic disorder uses single persons as a variable, as opposed n. The to analyses that group people by culture, individuals involved usually share a close country, geographical area, age, socioeco relationship either by kinship or romance. Individual psychology was developed in the induction early 1900s by Alfred Adler, who believed that n. A form of logical reasoning in which human behavior was holistic, goal driven, general principles are inferred from multi and socially oriented. Any act it and that infuences their choice of social or process of bringing about a change, as of groups. Personality and behavior are thought inducting a person into the military, putting to be crystallized in early childhood and to someone into a hypnotic state, or producing be stable throughout life. Logical inference using many instances to Adlerian (individual psychology) perspec formulate a general rule. The branch of psychology that studies some segments of the feld; for example, there humans in the workplace and attempts to is a journal explicitly devoted to individual apply general psychological principles to 254 industrial psychology information processing workplaces to improve productivity and to infantilism improve working circumstances for those n. In statistics, using a statis industrial psychology tical procedure to make a conclusion about n. The branch of psychology that studies a population from a sample drawn from the humans in the workplace and attempts to population.

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One of the shapes had smooth curves while the other had star-like sharp edges (Figure 11) medications not to crush cheap oxcarbazepine 300mg on line. Some commentators agree that onomatopoeia has significantly contributed to medicine used for pink eye buy cheap oxcarbazepine 600mg line the development of many linguistic utterances [Limber 86 treatment ideas practical strategies cheap 150mg oxcarbazepine otc, 1982] [Allott, 1989]. With this in mind, onomatopoeic words of a foreign language might be easier to understand than other more complicated words that do not have a strong relationship between their sounds and meanings. A more common form of communication that is claimed to be universal, however, is infant directed communication or parentese which will be explored in the next section. Some researchers suggest that the use of infant-directed communication for training speech recognition systems might enhance their automatic learning and discrimination of phonetic categories [Kirchhoff and Schimmel, 2005]. Some developers have used infant-directed speech to train robots that can recognize approval, disapproval, praise, or prohibition [Breazeal and Aryananda, 2002]. Because of the potential role of the exaggerated prosody that adults generally direct towards infants in developing and training systems that can recognize affective intent, it is important to cast a short glance on this communicative aspect of voice. Almost every person who talks to a baby uses a high-pitched voice that is characterized by a lengthened melodic quality and repetition. Anne Fernald, a psychologist in Stanford, conducted studies about mother-infant interaction across different cultures. Thus Fernald finds that parentese involves paralinguistic features that are common among almost all cultures. These features include high pitch, slow tempo, wide pitch range, extended intonation and exaggerated inflection. Some studies have shown that infants are more sensitive and responsive to parentese than to normal speech, and that they are much more reactive to vocal expressions than to facial expressions [Mithen, 2005: 70]. Infant-directed speech is thought to be more effective than stroking in calming infants [Mithen, 2005: 70]. Malcolm Slaney and Gerald McRoberts, for instance, developed Baby Ears; a recognition system for affective vocalizations that is based on experiments that involved gathering acoustic data from parents talking to their infants [Slaney and McRoberts, 1998]. The prosodic character of infant-directed speech is thought to play a role in facilitating the acquisition of language. The placement of pauses helps the infant perceive the beginning and end of sentences and to split and identify individual words and phrases [Nelson et al. Many other studies about the psychological effects of singing on infants have been undertaken, and many also have been conducted about the general effects of singing and music on adult listeners. However, there is hardly any research about the psychological and physiological effects of singing on the singer. The very few studies that I found related to this subject will be explored in a later chapter. While parentese is considered cross-cultural by some researchers, the next section explores paralinguistic communication which varies by culture. A large part of communication involves non verbal forms of communication which may be vocal, facial or gestural. They help listeners recognize the emotional state of the communicator and the content and connotation of speech. Many remarkable uses of vocal paralanguage exist within various cultures for different communication purposes. In Arab countries, the zaghrooda (ululation) is a high-pitched utterance generated by moving the tongue between the lips repetitively to express joy during happy occasions.

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In addition medicine xl3 oxcarbazepine 300mg on line, there must be evidence that the disorder being observed is not likely to medicine quizlet proven oxcarbazepine 300 mg be better explained by another non-alcohol-induced mental disorder medications similar to adderall cheap 150 mg oxcarbazepine mastercard. When symptoms are observed only during a delirium, they should be considered part of the delirium and not diagnosed separately, as many sjmiptoms (including disturbances in mood, anxiety, and reality testing) are commonly seen during agitated, confused states. Finally, there are indications that the intake of substances of abuse in the context of a preexisting mental disorder are likely to result in an intensification of the preexisting independent syndrome. However, individuals with alcohol-induced disorders are likely to also demonstrate the associated features seen with an alcohol use disorder, as listed in the subsections of this chapter. The alcohol-induced disorders are an important part of the differential diagnoses for the independent mental conditions. The alcohol-induced conditions, on the other hand, are likely to be much shorter in duration and disappear within several days to 1 month after cessation of severe intoxication and/or withdrawal, even without psychotropic medications. Caffeine-Related Disorders Caffeine Intoxication Caffeine Withdrawal Other Caffeine-Induced Disorders Unspecified Caffeine-Related Disorder Caffeine Intoxication Diagnostic Criteria 305. Five (or more) of the following signs or symptoms developing during, or shortly after, caffeine use: 1. Diagnostic Features Caffeine can be consumed from a number of different sources, including coffee, tea, caf feinated soda, "energy" drinks, over-the-counter analgesics and cold remedies, energy aids. Caffeine is also increasingly being used as an additive to vitamins and to food products. The essential feature of caffeine intoxication is recent consumption of caffeine and five or more signs or symptoms that develop during or shortly after caffeine use (Criteria A and B). Symptoms include restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushed face, diuresis, and gastrointestinal complaints, which can occur with low doses. The signs or symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion C). Although large doses of caffeine can increase heart rate, smaller doses can slow heart rate. On physical examination, agitation, restlessness, sweating, tachycardia, flushed face, and increased bowel motility may be seen. Caffeine blood levels may provide important information for diagnosis, particularly when the individual is a poor historian, although these levels are not diagnostic by themselves in view of the individual variation in response to caffeine.

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Primary transexuals medications similar to abilify 150mg oxcarbazepine amex, more than secondary transexuals medications prescribed for depression 150mg oxcarbazepine with visa, are preoccupied with these disorders are characterised by disturbance in sex-change or sex-reassignment surgery medicine lake mt cheap oxcarbazepine 150mg fast delivery. In contrast to the primary type, secondary transexu Transexualism alism usually has an onset later in life. This is a Transexualism, the severest form of gender identity less severe and more heterogeneous category. The disorders, is characterised by the following clinical only common feature is a wish to change the ana features: tomic sex. The prevalence of Sex-change to the Desired Gender transexualism is 1:100,000 in males and 1:400,000 this procedure is known as sex reassignment in females. Transvestism (Fetishistic Transvestism) the procedures include hormonal treatment, phal Transvestism (or fetishistic cross-dressing) is the loplasty, castration, mastectomy, and hysterectomy wearing or using of clothes traditionally of the other with salpingo-ophorectomy, which have been used in gender (cross-dressing), for the purpose of sexual different combinations. The diagnosis of primary, stable, long-standing Effeminate male homosexuals and masculine female transexualism is con rmed. A possibility of stress-induced transexualism is want a sex-change (called pseudo-transexualism). The patient has to undergo psychotherapy for at not feel a part of the other sex and always acknowl least 3-6 months preoperatively. Postoperative psychotherapy is of utmost importance in prevention of psychiatric mor Treatment bidity. The treatment can aim at two opposite ends by either Dual-role Transvestism making the person reconcile with the anatomic sex, or arrange sex-change to the desired gender. Dual-role transvestism is characterised by wearing Reconciliation with the Anatomic Sex of clothes of the opposite sex in order to enjoy the There are only occasional reports of achieving this temporary experience of membership of the opposite purpose in primary transexuals. However, in second sex, but without any desire for a more permanent sex ary transexuals, this method may be more effective change (unlike transexualism). No sexual excitement and should be employed rst if possible though this accompanies the cross-dressing (unlike in fetishistic decision is best made by the patient. Sexual Disorders 123 Gender-identity Disorder of Childhood homosexual, or bisexual) causes signi cant distress this is a disorder similar to transexualism, with a very to the individual or disturbances in the relationships. This is charac It is important to remember that any type of sexual terised by the following clinical features: orientation by itself is not a disorder unless it causes 1. Marked distress regarding the anatomic sex, with strong denial of anatomic sex (in contrast, there this disorder usually begins in adolescence and is is no denial of anatomic sex in transexualism). Involvement in traditional activities, games and identity or sexual orientation (heterosexual, homo clothing pattern of the perceived gender. Sometimes, this disorder Although a majority of primary transexuals have arises for the time in an individual after a period of gender-identity disorder of childhood in their past apparently stable sexual orientation. How Treatment ever, the individual wishes to change the orientation Treatment of gender identity disorders is similar to because of the associated distress and/or psychological transexualism. This disorder is seen most commonly in identity are opposing, decision on treatment should be homosexuality. Homosexuality Inter-sexuality Homosexuality, in contrast to heterosexuality, is the the patients with this disorder have gross anatomical sexual relationship between persons of the same sex. These this is a disorder only when it is the predominant, aspects can be in: signi cant and persistent mode of sexual relationship 1. Female homosexuals are nisation syndrome, congenital adrenal hypo also called as lesbians or sapphic after Sappho, a plasia.

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