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By: Mikayla Spangler, PharmD, BCPS

  • Associate Professor, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions
  • Clinical Pharmacist, CHI Health Clinic—Lakeside, Omaha, Nebraska

https://spahp.creighton.edu/faculty-directory-profile/505/mikayla-spangler

Heuristic Processing: Availability and Representativeness Another way that our information processing may be biased occurs when we use heuristics antibiotics for sinus infection ceftin buy 480 mg bactrim with mastercard, which are information-processing strategies that are useful in many cases but may lead to infection 24 buy bactrim 480 mg online errors when misapplied antibiotics for uti for male bactrim 480 mg with amex. In many cases we base our judgments on information that seems to represent, or match, what we expect will happen, while ignoring other potentially more relevant statistical information. Boy Using the representativeness heuristic may lead us to incorrectly believe that some patterns of observed events are more likely to have occurred than others. In this case, list B seems more random, and thus is judged as more likely to have occurred, but statistically both lists are equally likely. Most people think that list B is more likely, probably because list B looks more random, and thus matches (is representative of) our ideas about randomness. But statisticians know that any pattern of four girls and four boys is mathematically equally likely. The problem is that we have a schema of what randomness should be like, which doesnt always match what is mathematically the case. Imagine, for instance, that I asked you to indicate whether there are more words in the English language that begin with the letter R or that have the letter R as the third letter. You would probably answer this question by trying to think of words that have each of the characteristics, thinking of all the words you know that begin with R and all that have R in the third position. We may think that our friends are nice people, because we see and remember them primarily when they are around us (their friends, who they are, of course, nice to). And the traffic might seem worse in our own neighborhood than we think it is in other places, in part because nearby traffic jams are more easily retrieved than are traffic jams that occur somewhere else. Salience and Cognitive Accessibility Still another potential for bias in memory occurs because we are more likely to attend to, and thus make use of and remember, some information more than other information. For one, we tend to attend to and remember things that are highly salient, meaning that they attract our attention. Things that are unique, colorful, bright, moving, and unexpected are more salient [24] (McArthur & Post, 1977; Taylor & Fiske, 1978). In one relevant study, Loftus, Loftus, and [25] Messo (1987) showed people images of a customer walking up to a bank teller and pulling out either a pistol or a checkbook. By tracking eye movements, the researchers determined that people were more likely to look at the gun than at the checkbook, and that this reduced their ability to accurately identify the criminal in a lineup that was given later. The salience of the stimuli in our social worlds has a big influence on our judgment, and in some cases may lead us to behave in ways that we might better not have. You tell her that you were thinking of buying a Zune, and she tells you that you are crazy. If you think about this question logically, the information that you just got from your friend isnt really all that important. You now know the opinion of one more person, but that cant change the overall rating of the two machines very much. On the other hand, the information your friend gives you, and the chance to use her iPod, are highly salient. The information is right there in front of you, in your hand, whereas the statistical information from Consumer Reports is only in the form of a table that you saw on your computer. The outcome in cases such as this is that people frequently ignore the less salient but more important information, such as the likelihood that events occur across a large population (these statistics are known as base rates), in favor of the less important but nevertheless more salient information. People also vary in the schemas that they find important to use when judging others and when thinking about themselves. Cognitive accessibility refers tothe extent to which knowledge is activated in memory, and thus likely to be used in cognition and behavior. For instance, you probably know a person who is a golf nut (or fanatic of another sport). Because he loves golf, it is important to his self-concept, he sets many of his goals in terms of the sport, and he tends to think about things and people in terms of it (if he plays golf, he must be a good person!

Lenneberg (see also Scovel antibiotic resistance related to natural selection discount bactrim 480 mg free shipping, 1969) also hypothesized that the end of the development of cerebral dominance coincided with the close of a "critical period" for language acquisition antibiotics and mirena cheap 960mg bactrim otc, noting that "foreign accents cannot be overcome easily after puberty" (p topical antibiotics for acne vulgaris purchase bactrim 960mg free shipping. Lenneberg therefore proposed a biological explanation for child-adult differences in language acquisition attainment, a very serious claim for those of us interested in 72 second language acquisition in adult and one which could imply lowered expectancies on the part of both teachers and students. While there seems to be no question that puberty is an important turning point in language acquisition (see, for example, Seliger, Krashen, and Ladefoged, 1975), it is not at all clear that the development of cerebral dominance is directly related. Second, alternative explanations are available to explain child-adult differences, explanations that are far more encouraging than the biological one. We will first briefly review the "state of research" over the last decade on the question of the development of cerebral dominance, and then review one of these alternative explanations. Simply, it is no longer clear that the development of cerebral dominance is complete at puberty. There are now arguments supporting the position that lateralization is "firmly established" much earlier, at least by age 5, and that the preconditions for lateralization may be present even at birth. Below, we briefly summarize the experimental and clinical literature that has appeared on this topic in the last few years. Witelson (1977) has reviewed all known studies using dichotic listening with children and concludes that ". Satz, Bakker, Teunissen, Goebel, and Van der Vlugt, 1975) is that the stimuli used for dichotic presentation were slightly different from the stimuli used in studies that report no change in degree of lateralization with increasing age. In the "puberty" studies, the children were presented with two or three sets of digits at one time 73. The subject is asked to recall as many digits as possible out of the six presented. This raises the possibility that there might be two different developmental courses for two different kinds of language processing, one complete lateralized to the left hemisphere by puberty and the other much earlier in life. Early completion of the development of cerebral dominance is also indicated by studies examining the development of unimanual motor skills. Caplan and Kinsbourne (1976), in a paper appropriately titled "Baby drops the rattle", provide an interesting example. The experimenters gave rattles to twenty-one infants (average age 21 months, 21 days) and found that the babies tended to hold the rattles longer when they were placed in their right hands (average duration of grasp = 62 seconds for the right hand and 41 seconds for the left hand), suggesting early lateral specialization of the central nervous system. Witelson (1977) has reviewed many studies of this sort using children age 7 and younger and concludes that "right-hand or right-sided superiority was observed in the large majority of the 34 studies" (p. This supports the hypothesis that there is an early propensity for unimanual performance in motor tasks, which is consistent with the hypothesis that cerebral dominance is established early in life. Studies examining the effects of unilateral brain damage on language in children also imply that lateralization is complete earlier than puberty. In later childhood (age 5 and older), just as in adults, aphasia is primarily the result of left hemisphere lesions. It appears to be the case, however, that before age 5 aphasia may result from right hemisphere lesions somewhat more frequently (about 30 per cent of the time, as compared with 3 per cent in adults and older children). Still, even for very young children, aphasia is associated more often with left lesions than with right lesions (for reviews, see Witelson, 1977; Krashen, 1973a; Hecean, 1976). The removal of an entire hemisphere, hemispherectomy, is perhaps the ultimate test of laterality. If the left 74 hemisphere is removed, and the patient is still able to speak, we can assume that the right hemisphere had at least some part in the language function before the surgery. The literature indicates that early removal of the left hemisphere for lesions incurred before age 5 does not generally result in aphasia. This result, like the data from unilateral lesions ((3) above) implies at least some right hemisphere participation in the language function in early years (Krashen, 1973a; Witelson, 1977). The hemispherectomy data are clear only up to age 5 (Krashen, 1973a), as this surgical procedure is rarely used with older children. Some researchers have looked for anatomical differences between the two hemispheres: slight differences do in fact exist in the adult brain (Geschwind and Levitsky, 1968) and it has been confirmed that similar left-right morphological differences exist in the infant and even in the pre-natal brain (Witelson and Pallie, 1973; Wada, Clarke, and Hamm, 1975), suggesting at least the potential of predisposition for hemispheric specialization.

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The role of genes and environment on trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a review of twin studies antibiotics for uti for cats cheap bactrim 960 mg fast delivery. Amir M infectious disease generic bactrim 960 mg without a prescription, Kaplan Z antibiotics for uti staph buy bactrim 480 mg on-line, Neumann L, et al: Posttraumatic stress disorder tenderness and fibromyalgia. Eye-movements and visual imagery: A working memory approach to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Relationships between psychiatric symptomatology, work skills, and future vocational performance. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and self-reported physical symptoms in Persian Gulf War veterans. Horizontal rhythmical eye movements consistently diminish the arousal provoked by auditory stimuli. Adjunctive risperidone in the treatment of chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. A randomized controlled study of single-session behavioural treatment of earthquake-related post-traumatic stress disorder using an earthquake simulator. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among American Indian Vietnam veterans: disparities and context. Group cognitive behavior therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: an initial randomized pilot study. Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain in Vietnam combat veterans. Psychotherapy mediated by remote communication technologies: a meta-analytic review. Levels of expectation for work activity in schizophrenia: clinical and rehabilitation outcomes. Pay and participation in work activity: clinical benefits for clients with schizophrenia. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with venlafaxine extended release: a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Peritraumatic dissociation, acute stress, and early posttraumatic stress disorder in victims of general crime. Randomised controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims of acute burn trauma. A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioural therapy for posttraumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors. The impact of severity of physical injury and perception of life threat in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims. Validating the primary care posttraumatic stress disorder screen and the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist with soldiers returning from combat. Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice at the National Academies of Science (2008) Committee on Gulf War and Health: Updated Literature Review of Depleted Uranium, Institute of Medicine. Noninvasive brain stimulation with high-frequency and low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Evaluation of inpatient dialectical-behavioral therapy for borderline personality disorder-a prospective study. Effectiveness of psychiatric rehabilitation approaches for employment of people with severe mental illness. An adaptogenic role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress; a randomised placebo controlled double blind intervention study (pilot). Efficacy and safety of sertraline treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Co-occurring mental and substance use disorders: the neurobiological effects of chronic stress. Core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder unimproved by alprazolam treatment. Surfing the net for medical information about psychological trauma: an empirical study of the quality and accuracy of trauma-related websites. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma.

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References:

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  • http://repositorio.unesp.br/bitstream/handle/11449/39372/WOS000243709000011.pdf?sequence=1
  • http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/24/3/387.pdf
  • http://public.gettysburg.edu/~rsorense/Melanoma%20differentiation%20papers/slominski.pdf
  • https://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/clincanres/18/3/598.full-text.pdf